Lineage of Hughes

US branches of the family are in blue

Bookplate of Margaret Hughes (1797-1887) of Donnington Priory, Berks.

The progenitor of this family, Mwyndeg Hughes of Liverpool (d 1712), was the son of a Mr. Hughes of 'Gelle Fawlor' (recte 'Gelli-ffowler'), near Ysceifiog in Flintshire. The family appears to be a branch of the Hughes family of Pant Gwyn, Ysceifiog, who were descended in the male line from Edwin (d 1073), Prince (sometimes referred to as King) of Tegeingl (that is the commotes of Rhuddlan, Coleshill and Prestatyn), founder of the 12th Noble Tribe of Wales, through an ancestor of the same name, Mwyndeg, whose pedigree is given in 19th century Hughes family papers (based on research carried out in the 'Shrewsbury records' by a Mr. Morris) as:

Mwyndeg ap* Bel ap Daffydd Lloyd ap Dafydd ap Cynrig ap Jevan ap Gruffyd ap Madoc Dhu ap Rhirid ap Llywelyn ap Owain Trefynnon ap Aldud ap Owain ap Edwin, King of Tegeingl

* 'ap' means 'son of'

The descent of Bel ap Daffydd Lloyd from Madoc Dhu ('the Black') (d before 22 Apr 1301*), Lord of Copa'r Goleuni, or 'The Hill of Light' (Gop Hill, Trelawnyd, legendary burial site of Boudica), is confirmed by a memorial stone to Bell Lloyd (d 1589), second of that name, being the grandson of Bel ap Daffyd Lloyd above, in the churchyard of St. Michael and All Angels, Trelawnyd, nr. Prestatyn**. The descent of Madoc Dhu from Edwin is given in public sources, though it is now thought that Aldud may have been an adopted, not natural, son of Owain ap Edwin - possibly a kinsman of Gruffyd ap Cynan, Prince of Gwynedd (d 1137)***. Edwin was the son of a Saxon princess, Ethelfleda or Aldgyth, daughter of Edwin, Earl of Mercia, and he appears to have acquired Tegeingl as his inheritance out of the pre-Conquest Earldom of Mercia; the identity of his father is uncertain. Various families who are descended from Edwin, including Wynn of Copa'r Leni and Hughes (originally named Pennant it seems) of Terfyn, owned land within Tegeingl into modern times, and some may yet remain, making them possibly the longest-established landowners in the country. See Meyrick, Sir Samuel Rush, 'Heraldic Visitations of Wales and Part of the Marches', London, 1896, Vol. 2, p. 299 for Wynn of Copa'r Leni and p. 305 for Pennant of Tre'r Ffynon. Mwyndeg ap Bell is shown on p. 297 where Edward ap Hugh ap Rhys ap Mwyndeg marries Janet Conway of Bodryddan.

Gop Hill or 'The Hill of Light', legendary burial site of Boudica (under a cairn called 'The Hill of Arrows' - where many ancient arrowheads have been found) and spiritual home of the Hughes family, from the south. The village is Trelawnyd. Apparently, it is possible, on a clear day, to see both Ireland and Scotland from top of Gop Hill (842 ft).

*The date Madoc Dhu's son Gruffyd paid homage to Prince Edward, later Edward II, as Earl of Chester.

**The engraving reads: 'DYMA LLE MAY YN GORFETH BELL LLOYD AP EDWARD AP BELL AP DD AP DD [AP] KENDRICK AP EVAN AP GRIFFETH AP MADOCK DDV A FV FAROW Y 8 DYDD OF YES MAI ANNO DO 1589'. Bell Lloyd was of the family of Lloyd of Henfryn (Henfryn is about 2km SW of Trelawnyd).

Memorial stone of Bell Lloyd dated 1589. At the bottom of the picture is the top portion of a rendering of the arms of Madoc Dhu (see illustration below). Newmarket has now been renamed Trelawnyd.

***The Peniarth Ms 131, written by Ieuan Brechfa about the year 1500, tells us that Aldud 'held all of Tegeingl by spear and sword for three years over a grievance with its Lord, for which act he then received a pardon from the king'; this must have been the three years following 1125 when Cadwallon ap Gruffudd ap Cynan killed three sons of Owain ap Edwin when they refused to accept the overlordship of Gruffudd ap Cynan as Prince of Gwynedd. Note that Gruffyd ap Madoc Dhu, above, married Gwladys, daughter of Owain ap Bleddyn ap Owain Brogyntyn, son of Madog ap Maredudd (d 1160), Prince of Powys, whose wife, Susanna (daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan, Prince of Gwynedd), was a great-granddaughter of Edwin of Tegeingl through her mother, Angharad, daughter of Owain ap Edwin of Tegeingl. This means that there is at least one line (and there are undoubtedly many more) from Jevan ap Gruffyd ap Madoc Dhu, above, to Edwin of Tegeingl as follows:

Jevan ap Gwladys ferch* Owain ap Bleddyn ap Owain Brogyntyn ap Susanna ferch Angharad ferch Owain ap Edwin of Tegeingl

* 'ferch' means 'daughter of'

According to these 'Shrewsbury records', Thomas of Pant Gwyn, son of Mwyndeg ap Bel, above, married Janet, daughter of Gruffyd ap Dafydd ap Ithel Fychan, descended from Ednowain Bendew, founder of the 13th Noble Tribe. See Meyrick, Sir Samuel Rush, 'Heraldic Visitations of Wales and Part of the Marches', London, 1896, Vol. 2, p. 298 under Caerwys ('Keyrws'). He had issue Hugh, who married Agnes, daughter of Thomas ap Edward, sister of Morgan ap Thomas of Golden Grove (as stated in Burke's 'History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland', 1835, under 'Morgan of Golden Grove'). He had issue Edward, of Ysceifiog, who was of the first generation of this family to adopt the surname of Hughes, and who may have been the father or grandfather of Mr. Hughes of 'Gelle Fawlor', father of Mwyndeg Hughes of Liverpool. This would make the descent of Edward Hughes from Edwin as follows:

Edward ap Hugh ap Thomas ap Mwyndeg ap Bel ap Daffydd Lloyd ap Dafydd ap Cynrig ap Jevan ap Gruffyd ap Madoc Dhu ap Rhirid ap Llywelyn ap Owain Trefynnon ap Aldud ap Owain ap Edwin, King of Tegeingl

that is 16 generations covering a period of about five and a half centuries.

Edward had a daughter, Mary, who married John Wynn of Llanverres(?), possibly modern Llanferres, who is not mentioned as Edward's heir, indicating that he had other issue. A relative of John Hughes (1790-1857) at the time, a Mrs. Foulkes, stated that the Hughes family were cousins of the Wynn(e) family of Coed Coch (nr Betws-yn-Rhos) 'making it probable that we came of this Edward Hughes, Mary Wynn's father', according to John Hughes.

Given that Mwyndeg Hughes of Liverpool was married in 1707, he was certainly born not later than the last quarter of the 17th century, that is 1675-1700, and possibly earlier, given that he died in 1712. His father, Mr. Hughes of 'Gelle Fawlor', was therefore probably born in the mid-1600s, that is 1650-1675. Thomas ap Mwyndeg ap Bel was of the same generation as the Bell Lloyd ap Edward ap Bel (both being grandsons of the same Bel ap Dafydd), who died in 1589, so it is not unreasonable to assume that Thomas' son, Hugh, could have lived into the first quarter of the 17th century, that is 1600-1625, which means that Hugh's son, Edward, could have lived into the next quarter of the 17th century, that is 1625-1650. On this basis, Edward, of Ysceifiog, could have been the father or grandfather of Mr. Hughes of 'Gelle Fowler'. See here for lists of the inhabitants of Ysceifiog in 1681 and 1686; there are several Hughes families amongst whom might be the Mr. Hughes of 'Gelle Fowler', but this requires further investigation (note that these lists show the name of the head of the household, the number of people in the household and the ages of all in the household under the age of 18).

In a note written in February 1856, John Hughes (1790-1857), explained: 'From the peculiar name of my great-grandfather [Mwyndeg] and his nativity at Ysceifiog I conceive that he belonged to these folk [the Hughes of Pant Gwyn].' He also wrote: 'Our a/c by Mrs. Foulkes and all my father ever heard as a boy was that Gelle Fawlor in that parish was the estate and house owned by our immediate people which they got out of some 150 years ago [i.e. around 1700].', so it is evident that the connection to Gelle Fawlor ('Gelli-ffowler') and Ysceifiog was family knowledge long before the research carried out by Mr. Morris in the 'Shrewsbury records'.

The name Mwyndeg appears only to occur in this branch of the Hughes family, though it is not unknown elsewhere, and means 'gentle and fair, tender, genial, affable'.


MWYNDEG HUGHES (d 1712), sea captain and merchant adventurer of Liverpool; born at Ysceifiog, son of a Mr. Hughes of 'Gelle Fawlor' (recte 'Gelli-ffowler')* in that parish; m 1707 at Chester, Elizabeth Wood, sister and co-heir of Thomas Wood of Hillingdon, of the 'Daily Advertiser', and had issue,

1a THOMAS, of whom we treat
2a Mundick or Mwyndeg (bapt 1712), no further information
1a Elizabeth (bapt 1709), no further information

*According to local historian, Hazel Formby of Tan-y-Llan, Ysceifiog, Gelli-ffowler was ultimately acquired by Flintshire County Council and split into at least five farms.

THOMAS HUGHES (1710-1776), Clerk in Holy Orders; educ Trinity Hall, Cambridge; 'having narrowly escaped in his youth the consequences of a Jacobite plot in which several of the sons of the Welsh gentry were involved' (see Burke's 'Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland', 1847, Vol. I, p. 612 under HUGHES OF DONNINGTON PRIORY), he became Headmaster of Ruthin School (Denbigh, North Wales) from 1739 and later Rector of Llanfwrog and Llansilyn; m Elizabeth (1720-1756, memorial in St. Peter's Church, Ruthin), daughter of Norfolk Salusbury of Plas-y-Ward, Denbigh, a branch of the family of Salusbury of Lleweni (see SALUSBURY OF LLEWENI, Burke's 'Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies'), who were descended from Maurice Wynn of Gwydir (d 1580), senior male heir of the Princes of Gwynedd, and Katheryn (Catherine) Tudor of Berain (d 1591), known as 'Mam Gwalia' or 'The Mother of Wales', grand-daughter, via her mother, Jane Velville, of Sir Roland de Velville (1474-1535), Constable of Beaumaris Castle, a natural son of Henry VII (according to the Dictionary of Welsh Biography), and had issue,

Kathryn Tudor of Berain (1534-1591), known as 'Mam Gwalia' ('The Mother of Wales') by Lucas de Heere (1568)

1a Robert, HEICS, apparently Rector of Gwyddelwern (1801-09), Llantysilio (Llangollen) (1838-43), Gwaunysgor (1843-46) and Llansantffraid-ym-Mechain (from 1846), but this may refer to his son, Robert. He m Frances Welsh and had issue two sons, Robert, who dsp, and Valentine (1785-1813), HEICS, who dsp, and a daughter, Frances (Fanny), who married her first cousin, Archdeacon Newcome (see below)
2a THOMAS HUGHES, of whom we treat
1a Elizabeth m Rev. Henry Newcome, Warden of Ruthin, and d 1783 having had issue Henry (author of
'The Autobiography of Henry Newcome, M.A.'), Thomas (1777-1851), Rector of Shenley, Herts, from 1802-1849, who married Charlotte, daughter of Thomas Winter of Shenley Hill (now Shenley Hall), Richard, Archdeacon of Merioneth, who married his first cousin Frances (see above), Elizabeth and Maria (The Newcome family were settled at Saltfle(e)tby, Lincolnshire from the time of Richard I; see BLG 1972 for a history of the family and also Burke's 'Dormant and Extinct Peerages' under 'VISCOUNT NEWCOMEN')
2a Anne m John (or possibly W) Fryer of Taplow Lodge, Taplow, Bucks, a 'rich Welsh squire', and d at Wrexham on 14 Mar 1817 without issue.

He m, secondly, Margaret Salusbury (or possibly Salesbury), cousin of his first wife, who d April 1799, aged 81

THOMAS HUGHES (1756-1833), Clerk in Holy Orders and a Doctor of Divinity, of Amen Corner, St. Paul's, London and Uffington, Berkshire; appointed tutor to the younger children of George III, namely the Dukes of Cumberland, Sussex and Cambridge, in 1777; Clerk of the Closet to George III and IV; Perpetual Curate of Putney (1788-1803); Prebendary of Westminster Abbey (1793-1807); Rector of Peasemore, Bucks (1801-1807); Chaplain to the Duke of Cumberland (1802); Rector of Turweston, Bucks (1802-1804); Prebendary of St. Paul's Cathedral (1807-1833); Residentiary Canon of St. Paul's (1807-1833); Vicar of Chiswick (1808-1809); Rector of St. Mary's, Cilcain, Flints (1809-1826); Vicar of Uffington, Berks (1816-1833); m Mary Anne (1770-1853), daughter of Rev. George Watts, Vicar of Uffington (d. 1810), son of Rev. George Watts, Vicar of Uffington, Chaplain to George II and Master of the Temple Church, son of Rev. Henry Watts, Vicar of Uffington; a friend of Sir Walter Scott she wrote 'Letters and Recollections of Sir Walter Scott' (Ed. Horace G. Hutchinson, London, Smith Elder, 1904); they had an only child,

'Squire Brown, J.P., for the County of Berks' - John Hughes (1790-1857), an illustration from 'Tom Brown's Schooldays'.

JOHN HUGHES (1790-1857), JP, author, artist, antiquarian, poet, (he wrote the poem from which the motto of the Grand National Archery Society was taken - 'Union, Trueheart and Courtesie'), of Uffington House, Uffington, Berks, later of Donnington Priory, Newbury, Berks (from 1833) and latterly of 7 The Boltons, West Brompton, London (from 1852) (see his entry in DNB); educ at Westminster and Oriel College, Oxford; author of 'Itinerary of Provence and the Rhone' (1822) and 'The Boscobel Tracts' (1830); he was 'Squire Brown', the archetypal English squire immortalised in 'Tom Brown's Schooldays', which was written by his second son, Thomas (see below); he m, firstly, Elizabeth Cook, who died in 1819, aged 22, having had issue a daughter, Henrietta Maria, who died in the same year, aged 6 months (memorial in St. Mary's, Uffington); he m, secondly in 1820, Margaret Elizabeth (1797-1887 at Rugby, Tennessee, where she moved in 1881 following the death of her daughter, Jane), daughter of Thomas Wilkinson of Stokesley Castle (or Manor), Stokesley, Yorkshire (and here, here and here), and had issue,

'Dear, dear Donnington' - Donnington Priory, nr. Newbury, Berks, with the River Lambourne. Home of the Hughes family from 1833 to 1852. Donnington Priory features in 'The 39 Steps' as the sanctuary in Berkshire to which Richard Hannay fled from Scotland.

1a George Edward Hughes (1821-1872), barrister at the ecclesiastical bar, of Offley Place; educ at Rugby and Oxford; noted amateur cricketer and oarsman (he captained the Oxford boat that won the famous Henley boat race of 1843 with a crew of seven men), 'the simplest and most modest of country gentlemen' according to his obituary in The Times; he m his third cousin Anne (1831-1903) (being the grand-daughter of Elizabeth Salusbury's (d 1756) brother, Robert (d 1776) of Cotton Hall, Denbigh), daughter of Samuel Steward, who was adopted by her mother's cousin, Elizabeth, Lady Salusbury (1793-1867), of Offley Place, Great Offley, Herts, widow of Sir Thomas Robert Salusbury, Bt (1783-1835), and had issue (who appear to have adopted the surname Salusbury-Hughes),

Offley Place, Great Offley, Hertfordshire

1b George Herbert Salusbury (1853-1926), JP, last Squire of Offley; m 1888 Henrietta Louisa Beale (1856-1944) and had issue,

1c Guy Salusbury (1882-1955); m, firstly, Edith Mildred Mary Maude and had issue,

A Mosquito of 23 Squadron over Malta in June 1943.

1d Kendrick Salusbury (b 1910; killed in action 21 Jul 1943, Malta), DFC; Squadron Leader, 23 Squadron, RAF Volunteer Reserve; m Audrey Stuart (1911-1998) and had issue,

1e David Salusbury (1936-1998); m Isobel Symington and had issue,

1f Roderick
2f Nicholas
1f Judith
2f Victoria
3f Hester
4f Phoebe

1e Pauline; m Patrick McGrath and has issue,

1f Patrick
1f Josephine (b 1958), who m and has issue
2f Annette Patricia (b 1961)
3f Veronica (b 1964), who m and has issue

He m, secondly, Dorothy -

2c John Salusbury ('Jack'); m Erica Chittenden and had issue,

1d Jaqueline; m 1935 Kenneth ('Kate') Savill (d 2008), CVO, DSO, of Chilton Manor, Chilton Candover, Hants, Col. 12th Royal Lancers, a Member of the HM Bodyguard of Gentleman at Arms (1955-76), and had issue,

1e Jill (d 1942)
2e Susan (b 1941)
3e Pamela (b 1942)

2b Edward Mwyndeg (1855-1881), d unm
3b Walter John ('Jack') (b 1858), m Olive Boyer and had issue,

1c Mabel Luz Olivette; m 1914 Vivian Mortlock Studd (b 1891), Chev. Order of the Crown (Italy), Lt. 5th Battalion, Rifle Brigade, of the family of Oxton House, Kenton, Devon, and had issue,

1d John Alnod Peter Studd, Pilot Officer (Spitfire Mk III), 66 Squadron; b. 1918, killed in action 19 Aug 1940
1d Deidre
2d Lavender

Pilot Officer John Alnod Peter Studd, 66 Squadron RAF,
killed in action 19 August 1940, aged 22.
'Never was so much owed by so many to so few' - Winston Churchill, 20 August 1940.
Wartime RAF poster.

4b Reginald George Holton (b 1860); Lt. Col. Oxford and Bucks Light Infantry, of Offley; m Marian Graham and had issue,

1c Edward Reginald Graham (1896-1915); 2nd Lieut. Oxford and Bucks Light Infantry; killed in action 25 Sep 1915
2c Graham; killed in a flying accident
1c Diana
2c Nancy
3c Margaret; m, firstly (div), R Yule and, secondly, Kenneth Ware

Thomas Hughes (1822-1896) - Christian Socialist, author of 'Tom Brown's Schooldays' and one of the founders of the Trade Union Movement. For many years a portrait of him hung in Congress House, headquarters of the Trades Union Congress (TUC), but it appears to have been removed. 'All through his life he strove passionately and ardently for those things in which he believed, deterred neither by the prejudices of the class to which he belonged nor by the strength of the forces arrayed against him. And in the end persistence sometimes won what love and good-fellowship alone could not have accomplished. Were Tom alive today he would still know which way to head, and would be trudging straight down the road that leads there, perhaps drawing with him some of the faint of heart. It would be good to have him with us.' (Mack, Edward. C. & Armytage, W. H. G., 'Thomas Hughes', Ernest Benn Ltd, London,1952).

2a Thomas Hughes (1822-1896), MP, QC, barrister, of Wimbledon, later of Park Street, Mayfair, London, and, from 1885, of 'Uffington', Dee Hills Park, Chester (see his entry in DNB); educ at Rugby (1834-1842) and Oriel College, Oxford (1842-1844); trained at Lincoln's Inn (1845-1846) and called to the bar in 1847. In 1848 he joined with Rev. Frederick Maurice (1805-1872) and Charles Kingsley (1819-1875) to found the Christian Socialist Movement. In the same year they started a paper called 'Politics for the People' and in 1850 Hughes helped to set up the Society for Promoting Working Men's Associations. He was one of the early influences behind the formation of the Trade Union Movement of which he later became, as a barrister and QC (appointed 1869), a trusted legal expert and political adviser, being a member of the parliamentary committee of the Trades Union Congress. In 1854 the night classes that the Christian Socialists had been holding led to the formation of the Working Men's College, of which Thomas Hughes was principal from 1873 to 1883. He was actively involved in the Co-operative Congress, as its first President, and the Co-operative Wholesale Society. He was the Member of Parliament for Lambeth from 1865 to 1868 and then Frome from 1868 to 1874, where he represented the working class interest, and was appointed a County Court Judge for Chester in 1882. Towards the end of his life he drew apart from the Trade Union Movement and by 1892 had come to the conclusion that the Conservatives had done more for social legislation than the Liberals. He was the author of 'Tom Brown's Schooldays' (1856), 'The Scouring of the White Horse' (1859), 'Tom Brown at Oxford' (1861), 'Religio Laici' (1868), 'Life of Alfred the Great' (1869)', 'Memoir of a Brother', 'Early Memories for the Children' (1899) and other works; founder of the co-operative settlement of Rugby, Tennessee, which is now 'Historic Rugby'. He died in Brighton in 1896 and was buried in Woodvale Cemetery, Brighton on 25 March 1896; he m 1847 Anne Frances ('Fanny') (1826-1901), daughter of Rev. Dr. James Ford (d 1877), Prebendary of Exeter, son of Sir Richard Ford (1758-1806) and had issue,

1b Walter Maurice (1850-1859), drowned in a childhood accident at Sunbury-on-Thames
2b James Ford (1853-1914); emigrated to the USA in 1874 and established a business selling racehorses and polo ponies, dsp
3b John (1856-1888), died of paralysis, dsp
4b Arthur (b 1863), no further information
5b George (b 1865); emigrated to the USA in 1882 and became a rancher in Kansas, establishing his own ranch at Stanley Farm, Rochester Road, North Topeka; m Lena Cogdell and had issue,

1c Thomas; m Marjorie Carlton and has issue,

1d Nancy

2c George (d 1960); m Nancy Clyne (d 1989) and had issue,

1d Roger, attorney of Texas, m 1977 Esther Russell, lay pastor, and has issue,

1e Kelly Sarah (b 1981)
2e Lauren Anne (b 1983)
3e Jordan Elizabeth (b 1987)

1d Suzanne

1c Carolyn; m Harmon D'Agostino and has issue,

1d Sharon; m Benjamin Ramsharran (d 2001) dsp

1b Margaret Evelyn (1851-1856), died of scarlet fever
2b Caroline Mary Henrietta (1854-1906) m Rev. Fraser Cornish of London, but dsp
3b Mary (1860-1941),
'Comrade Mary Hughes', usually called simply 'The Comrade', philanthropist (see her entry in DNB), a Quaker and later, after the failure of the General Strike of 1926, a Communist (though she foresaw that Communism would collapse if it did not embrace Christianity), Labour councillor for Stepney and a Justice of the Peace (she was known for paying the fines of poor people who came before her), she dedicated her life to the poor of the East End of London and in 1926 founded the 'Dewdrop Inn' (a pun on 'Do drop in') in Whitechapel, London, a refuge for the destitute, where she lived amongst the transient inhabitants, as a result of which she frequently became lice-ridden, and on account of this it was once said of her that 'Her lice were her glory!'; Gandhi asked to meet her when he visited Britain in 1931 (she was the only person he asked to meet); George Lansbury, himself a much-loved figure in the East End, said: 'Our frail humanity only produces a Mary Hughes once in a century.'; dsp

Mary Hughes (1860-1941), known as 'The Angel of the East End' (Rosa Hobhouse, 'Mary Hughes', Rockliff, London, 1949, p. 123).

Sydney Morning Herald, 5 June 1941 (written shortly after her death)
"THE ANGEL OF THE EAST END."
"Miss Hughes" of Mayfair
From BETTY WILSON.
LONDON, May 10.

In a bare dusty hall at the end of one of those East End slum streets which still, in memory of a long time past, are called a "grove," the Bethnal Green Society of Friends held a memorial meeting for one of their members who was known as the "Angel of the East End."

SOMETIMES she was called "Mary"; sometimes "Comrade." No one in the East End knew her as "Miss Hughes." Nor did they, until past mayors of Stepney, commenting on her habit of giving them a copy of "Tom Brown's School Days" when they came into office, realise[d - sic] that their Comrade Mary was the daughter of "Tom Brown's" great author; that she wasn't just "Comrade Mary," but Miss Hughes, of Mayfair. Mary Hughes was born in Park Street, Mayfair. Tennyson, Browning, and Kingsley were among the great Victorians who came to her home. Champions of the poor; great talkers when housing schemes for the East End were under discussion, they lived in the way they had always lived, among their books, in pleasant, orderly surroundings. All except Judge Hughes's daughter, Mary.

Left Mayfair for Whitechapel.

FORTY years ago she left Mayfair for Whitechapel, to help with the work which her sister, who married the vicar of St. Jude's, was doing among the poor of the parish. When the vicar and his wife went down in the Titanic, Mary went on with her work - and theirs. She bought a little "pub" off the Bethnal Green Road which she converted into what she liked to call her "Home of Education and Joy." Its name was changed to the Dew Drop Inn. No one who visited Comrade Mary at the Dew Drop Inn was allowed to go away without having had a meal there. It didn't matter whether Mary was at home or not. Those were her orders, and Mary, autocratic in some things, saw that they were carried out.

Society of Friends Protested.

SHE wore a dusty, not always clean, black dress with a black shawl round her shoulders - just like the women you will see in any part of the East End - round Whitechapel, Shoreditch, and Stepney. Sometimes she looked so shabby that the warden of the Society of Friends was moved to protest. "We did not always think that she was setting them an example in that." he said. But Mary always said: "My body is the dust-cloak of the spirit. What does it matter?" In her will she left her body to the London Hospital, in Whitechapel, where she died at the age of 81. "She should save her strength and not try to sing." the nurses told a Salvation Army worker who called to see her. But Mary died singing.

She wore her old black dress wherever she went, and she slept on a board bed in a room little bigger than a cupboard, in the Dew Drop Inn, where the door was never locked, but Stepney saw that she was made a member of the Stepney Borough Council. She saw that some new housing estates went through before she let the other councillors approve the plans for a costly new town hall: she had "skilly" taken off the Stepney Workhouse breakfast menu, and saw that the men and women ending their days there got an egg or a little piece of bacon instead.

They Talked of Mary.

SOME of the men who had sat with her on the Stepney Council came to her memorial meeting. There was no service. Mary's friends came forward and laid a handful of flowers or a bunch of daffodils bought on a street corner on the plain deal table in the centre of the room. Then they talked about Mary. "She always told me to call her Mary and not Miss Hughes, and I never would," a crippled woman, wearing a Salvation Army uniform, said. "And then she'd go for me. You know how she could with all her gentle ways." "If anyone is fit to enter the Kingdom of Heaven, it's Mary. I don't know who else," said an old taxi driver. An elderly grey-haired woman brought a copy of "Tom Brown's School Days" which Mary had given her when she was married in St. Jude's Church forty years ago. "She was the first one who called me by my married name." she said. "We shall miss her dreadfully."

Ann Cumming wrote of her: 'Only twice in my life have I experienced a halo. The halo was each time round Mary Hughes and connected with some minor incident. One occasion was when I suddenly sighted her unexpectedly ahead in the street and felt all that she meant and stood for; she appeared supernaturally bright, that was all. On another occasion a young hawker and I were about to sit down to lunch with her. The lad and I were arguing about something trivial. She came forward to the table, stood with her hands together and said grace in her natural way. And something in her words, her manner, her personality freshened the whole atmosphere. Everything was purer. Though artists use a surrounding light, I would say that a halo is an increased vividness seen in a saintly person.' (Rosa Hobhouse, 'Mary Hughes', Rockliff, London, 1949, p. 97).

'She lives as if Christ were in the house next door. Since 1914 she has worn no hat or gloves. She sleeps on a board. She writes only postcards because they save 1/2d. Her food is bread, cheese and tea - and if someone else is hungry she doesn't eat at all.' ('Mary Hughes' by Rosa Hobhouse, published by Rockliff, London in 1949; 'Mary Hughes' by Hugh Pyper, published by the Quaker Home Service in 1985; DNB; 'Stone Upon Stone' by M.Osborn)
4b Lilian (1867-1912) m 1890 Rev. Ernest Courtenay Carter (great-grandson of Henry Reginald Courtenay, Bishop of Exeter, and Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Earl of Effingham), Vicar of St. Judes, a poor parish in London; both drowned in the Titanic disaster leaving no issue. He led the famous hymn service on board the Titanic on the night of the disaster. She was offered a place in a lifeboat but refused to leave her husband.

Rev. Ernest Courtenay Carter (1858-1912), as a young man.

IN LOVING MEMORY OF
ERNEST COURTENAY CARTER
BORN 17TH FEBRUARY 1858 AND VICAR OF ST JUDE'S,
WHITECHAPEL FROM NOVEMBER 1898 TO APRIL 1912
AND OF LILLIAN HIS WIFE
DAUGHTER OF THOMAS HUGHES THE AUTHOR OF TOM
BROWN'S SCHOOLDAYS. BORN 3rd MARCH 1867
WHO AFTER 14 YEARS OF SELF SACRIFICE IN THE
CAUSE OF RELIGION AND HUMANITY IN THIS PARISH
MET DEATH WHEN THE TITANIC FOUNDERED IN
THE ATLANTIC AFTER COLLISION WITH AN ICEBERG
ON THE 15TH OF APRIL 1912.
"LOVELY AND PLEASANT IN THEIR LIVES
IN DEATH THEY WERE NOT DIVIDED"
SHE REFUSED TO LEAVE HIM WHEN OFFERED
A PLACE IN A BOAT

From a memorial originally in St. Jude's, Whitechapel, which was later moved to St. Mary's, Longcot. Faringdon, Oxfordshire.

Depiction of Rev. Ernest Courtenay Carter and Lilian Carter on the Titanic memorial plaque in St. Mary's, Longcot. 'Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.' (John 15:13)

3a John Hughes (1824-1895), Clerk in Holy Orders; Vicar of Longcot, Berkshire (Oxfordshire since 1974), m Elizabeth Howard (1808-1883), daughter of Thomas Courtenay, brother of William Courtenay (1777-1859), 10th Earl of Devon (see DEVON, E.), but dsp

4a Walter Scott Hughes (1826-1846), Lieut Royal Artillery, who died of malaria 25 Apr 1846 at Fort Canje, Berbice, British Guyana

5a William Hastings Hughes (1833-1909), he set up in business as a sherry importer and was later proprietor of the 'South London Chronicle'; emigrated to New York in 1878 following the death, in 1877, of his sister, Jane (below), with whom he and his children had been living since the death of his first wife; he later went to manage his brother's (Thomas) co-operative settlement at Rugby, Tennessee; m, firstly, Emily (1838-1864), daughter of George Clark (1809-1874), Archdeacon of St. David's, and Anna Eliza Frances née Senior (b 1808) (see lineage of Senior above) and had issue,

1b William George (1859-1902); he emigrated to the USA in 1878 and became a noted 'Texas pioneer', building up a substantial ranch of about 7,000 acres near Boerne, Texas, which was sold after his death in a railway accident (see his biography: Perry, Garland, 'An American Saga - William George Hughes 1859-1902', Boerne, 1994); m 1888 Lucy Caroline Stephenson and had issue,

1c George (b 1892) who m Frona Rice and had issue,

1d Octavia; educ Harvard; sometime of the Museum of Fine Art, Boston
2d Anita (d 1988); educ St. Mary's Hall, San Antonio, Texas, Smith College, North Hampton, MA, and New York University School of Law; attorney in Houston, Texas; sometime Vice-President Austral Oil Co; Corporate Secretary of Floyd Oil Corp; dsp

2c Gerard (b 1895) m Charlotte - (1904-1995) and had issue,

1d Thomas, attorney, of California, m, firstly, Caralisa Pollard and has issue,

1e Gerard Hastings, film-maker, of California
1e Charlotte, investment manager, of California; m Christopher Combs and has issue,

1f Margaret

He m, secondly, Kathy - and has issue,

1e Elizabeth

1d Marion m Tom Steele and has issue,

1e Thomas, investment manager, of California
1e Susan, sometime manager with AT&T, of Massachusetts; m Edwin McMullen, manager with AT&T, and has issue,

1f Charlie
1f Maggie

2d Jean m Dr. E Robert Terhune, dentist, of New Hampshire, and has issue,

1e John, dentist, of New Hampshire; m Pam - and has issue,

1f Conor

2e Robert, NH State Trooper
1e Margaret, MD, of Kentucky; m Will Maragos, MD

3d Anne m Stuart Schaefer and has issue,

1e Katherine, psychologist, of Oregon; m Frank Rey and has issue,

1f Cody
2f Sam

2e Sally, RN, of Wisconsin; m Kent Klagos and has issue,

1f Tim
2f Jodi
3f Jami
4f Dan

1c Jeanie (b 1889), a Jungian therapist, dsp

2b Gerard (1861-1894); he emigrated to the USA in 1882 and became a partner in his elder brother's Texas ranch (see above); accidently drowned off the coast of Massachusetts; dsp
3b Henry (1862-1896); he emigrated to the USA in 1879 and became a partner in his elder brother's Texas ranch (see above) and later worked for John Murray Forbes (see below); drowned in the sinking of the 'Drummond Castle' when it hit a reef at night off the coast of France; dsp
1b Emily Margaret Alison (b 1863); in 1881 she accompanied her grandmother, Margaret Hughes (1797-1887), to her uncle's (Thomas Hughes) co-operative settlement at Rugby, Tennessee; after Margaret Hughes' death in 1887 she went to live with her father and his second wife at Highland Farm, Boston; in 1930 she and her husband moved to Kenya with their son, where it is probable she died after 1936; m 1902 Ainslie Marshall, a former settler at Rugby, and had issue,

1c Henry ('Harry') Marshall (d 1964), established a farm at Sotik, Kenya and appears to have dsp in South Africa

He m, secondly, Sarah (1853-1917), daughter of the great American railway magnate, John Murray Forbes of Boston (1813-1898) (this is the family of John Forbes Kerry (b. 1943), US Secretary of State), and had issue,

1b Walter Scott (1888-1953), a physicist and chemist who was instrumental in developing the glass electrode; m, firstly in 1924 (div 1931), Dorothy (1896-1956), daughter of Edwin Howard Pease and had issue,

1c John Hastings (1925-1985) m, firstly in 1952 (div 1964), Patricia Yarwood ('Cherie') and had issue,

1d John Forbes (b 1955), Associate Professor of Maths, Brown University; m 1992 Cynthia Cardon and has issue,

1e John Hastings Cardon ('Jack') (b 1996)
1e Margaret Cardon ('Meg') (b 1994)

1d Charmienne Sergeant (b 1954) who m, firstly in 1977 (div 1978), John Michael Culbreath and, secondly in 1994, John Wesley Pohlman

He m, secondly in 1965, Shirley Joan Parker

He m, secondly in 1931, Paula Mason (1903-1995) and had issue,

1c Arthur Pelham (b 1943), artist, of New York, m, firstly in 1965 (div 1994), Ingrid Jean Blaufarb (b 1945) and has issue,

1d Aaron (1968-1999), artist, of Paris
1d Stasha (b 1966), film-maker, of New York, m 2005 Sotirios Melissis, composer, of New York

1e Iliana Hughes Melissis (b 15 Mar 2008)

He m, secondly in 1997, Lanie Fleischer (b 1941)

1c Margaret I (1932-1979) m 1955 (div) Robert Sun Choy Young (b 1932) and had issue,

1d Colin Hoe (b 1956); m 1992 Lea Haratani (b 1958) and has issue,

1e Holden Mason (b 1994)
1e Kamila Ren (b 2000)

2c Kathryn Elizabeth (b 1937), playwright and dancer, of Washington; m, firstly in 1955 (div), Keith Woodruff Hoyt (1931-1977) and has issue,

1d Marni (b 1956), who adopted the surname Hughes

She m, secondly in 1965, Edwin Pearl, and, thirdly in 1971, Ralph Rinzler (1934-1994)

1b Dorothea (1891-1952), nurse and philanthropist, a Quaker; educ Milton Academy and Radcliffe College and then trained as a nurse in New York; author of 'Jane Elizabeth Senior: A Memoir' (1915); helped to establish the Warsaw School of Nursing in 1920 (for which she was decorated by the Polish government); worked as a volunteer nurse at the American Farm School, a Quaker establishment, at Salonica, Greece, in 1923/4 helping refugees in the aftermath of the Second Greco-Turkish War (see Loch, Joice Nankivell, 'A Fringe of Blue; An Autobiography', 1968); founded the Quaker 'Friends' College' in Jamaica in 1931, along with other charitable institutions on that island, including a co-operative farm; 'In her personal life she was plain to the point of austerity. Although she inherited a fortune she spent practically none of it on herself. She lived completely simply, usually travelled second class, dressed inconspicuously and made no concessions to current fashions. It was deeds, not words, which counted with her; she abominated sham and hypocrisy and never indulged in uplift talk. She may never have talked about her religion, but she lived a life of devotion to others, a life of self-sacrifice and cheerfulness.' - 'Dorothea Hughes Simmons - A Biography', Education Committee, Jamaica Yearly Meeting of Friends; Joice NanKivell Loch, in her autobiography 'A Fringe of Blue' (1968) wrote this sketch of Dorothea at the Farm School, Salonica: 'Dorothea gave a scholarship to the [school] and at one committee meeting threw a cheque for £25,000 over the table….At the same time she threw a second cheque for £25,000 across for Friends… to start a laboratory to study and combat malaria and blackwater fever…. Dorothea Hughes could drive some members of the unit to madness. She was extremely witty and had a very astute mind which saw through most situations, so that I think her behaviour was quite deliberately planned to tease the more conventionally-minded. She often had a streaming cold and would come to committee meetings flourishing a toilet roll or an old pair of camiknicks as hankerchiefs.' £50,000 would be $3.5 million today; she m 1929 David Simmons (1889-1960), a planter of Castle Daly, Jamaica, but dsp

Dorothea Hughes (1891-1952) - 'She was a veritable patron saint to the loving people in the Island [Jamaica] and they looked to her to solve all their troubles. Her memory will live long among them, and it is not too much to think that her name will become a legend.' (Rose T. Briggs)

6a Henry Salusbury Hughes (1836-1861), who died in Morocco while recuperating from the effects of a childhood shooting accident

'Long years ago I knew a young man at college; he was so far from being intellectually eminent that he had great difficulty in passing his examinations; he died from the effects of an accident within a very short time after leaving university, and hardly any one would now remember his name. He had not the smallest impression that there was anything remarkable about himself and he looked up to his teachers and more brilliant companions with a loyal admiration which would have made him wonder that they should ever take notice of him. And yet I often thought then, and I believe, in looking back, that I thought rightly, that he was of more real use to his contemporaries than any one of the persons to whose influence they would most naturally refer as having affected their development. The secret was a very simple one. Without any special intellectual capacity, he somehow represented with singular completeness a beautiful moral type. He possessed the "simple faith miscalled simplicity" and was so absolutely unselfish, so conspicuously pure in his whole life and conduct, so unsuspicious of evil in others, so sweet and loyal in his nature, that to know him was to have before one's eyes an embodiment of some of the most lovable and really admirable qualities that a human being can possess... [His companions] might affect to ridicule, but it was impossible that even ridicule should not be of the kindly sort; blended and tempered with something that was more like awe - profound respect, at least, for the beauty of soul that underlay the humble exterior.' - Sir Leslie Stephen (1832-1904) about Henry ('Harry') Hughes.

7a Arthur Octavius Hughes (1840-1867), Cornet 1st Dragoon Guards (Dec 1862 to Jan 1863) then 18th Hussars (from Jan 1863; Lt. from Apr 1864; Regt. to India Jun 1864), died of heatstroke in India (Secunderabad) on 8 May 1867

1a Jane Elizabeth ('Jeanie') Hughes (b 10 Dec 1828 at Uffington; d 24 March 1877 at 98 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, memorial St. Mary Abbots, Kensington), humanitarian (see her entry in DNB under 'Senior, Jane Elizabeth'), she trained as a vocalist under Garcia and was considered to be possibly the most gifted amateur singer of her day; on occasion she sang in private with Jenny Lind, the 'Swedish Nightingale', who was a friend; she was asked to test the acoustics of the newly-built Albert Hall; pioneer of social housing and of social housing finance with Octavia Hill (co-founder of the National Trust), another friend; one of the co-founders of the British Red Cross (she is listed as a member of the Ladies Committee in the Society's report of 1870-71), for whom she was a volunteer during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) and for which work she was awarded the Red Cross Medal; appointed in 1873 by Sir James Stansfeld, President of the Local Government Board, as Assistant Inspector of Workhouses (Inspector 1874), which made her the first female civil servant in Whitehall, and author, at his request, of an official (but controversial) report on the education and treatment of girls in pauper schools, which advocated the 'boarding out' of girls with foster families ('Report by Mrs. Senior on Pauper Schools', January 1874); founder of the Metropolitan Association for Befriending Young Servants 1874; founding co-sponsor of the Girls' Friendly Society 1875; probable model for the character 'Dorothea' in her friend, George Eliot's, 'Middlemarch'; see also the portraits of her by George Frederick Watts, whose muse she was ('Mrs. Nassau Senior', 1859, The National Trust, Wightwick Manor, Wolverhampton), and Sir John Everett Millais ('The Rescue', 1855, National Gallery of Victoria, Australia); she was also photographed by Julia Margaret Cameron, who was another friend; through her father-in-law's (Nassau William Senior) association with people like Sir Henry Taylor and Sir Leslie Stephen (father of Vanessa Bell and Virginia Woolf) and her own friendships with Lord Tennyson (who fell in love with Charlotte Rosa Baring (see above), aunt of Jeanie's daughter-in-law, Mabel Barbara Hammersley), George Eliot, Annie Thackeray, Julia Margaret Cameron, George Watts, Ellen Terry, Adelaide Sartoris, Thoby and Sara Prinsep, Tom Taylor, the Strachey family (to which she was closely related through her sister-in-law, Minnie Senior), her own brother, Thomas Hughes and his friends and associates (such as Maurice and other Christian Socialists), she was part of that group which gave birth to the Bloomsbury Group (see Boyd, Elizabeth French, 'Bloomsbury Heritage - Their Mothers and the Aunts', Hamish Hamilton, London, 1976); after her early death a friend wrote: 'Surely a more beautiful life has scarcely ever been lived. Its very brevity seems almost in keeping. It was a concentration of sweetness and beauty which could, one would fancy, hardly have lasted longer than those 49 short years' and in 'Recollections of the Hughes family' Walter Money wrote: 'If any lady of the 19th century, in England or abroad, could have been allowed to put in a claim for the credit of not having lived in vain, that woman, we honestly believe, was Mrs. Nassau Senior.'; see her biography by Sybil Oldfield, 'Jeanie, an 'Army of One' - Mrs. Nassau Senior (1828-1877), the First Woman in Whitehall', Sussex Academic Press, 2008; she m 1848 at St. Mary's Church, Shaw-cum-Donnington, nr. Newbury, Nassau John Senior (1822-1891), barrister, of Hyde Park Gate, London, and had issue (see lineage of Senior above).

Jane Elizabeth ('Jeanie') Hughes (1828-1877) - humanitarian. 'You were arrayed almost single-handed, a noble army of one... Who will take your place? Who will redeem our generation?' Florence Nightingale - Letter to Jeanie Senior, 7 Dec 1874. There is evidence that Florence Nightingale believed Jeanie Hughes to be a Christ-like Redeemer figure.

'I have lost a friend who could never be replaced even if I had a long life before me, one in whom I had unbounded confidence, never shaken in the course of friendship very rare during 26 years, Mrs. Nassau Senior, whom I dare say you remember talking about with me, who was called by a friend of yours "That Woman". I think when you read the biography of "That Woman", for it is one that will be written, [you will find] that very few canonized saints so well deserved glorification, for all that makes human nature admirable, lovable, & estimable, she had very few equals indeed, & I am certain no superior. It is not too much to say that children yet unborn will have cause to rue this comparative early death.' G F Watts, in a letter written shortly after Jeanie Senior's death in 1877 to his particularly sexist patron, Charles Rickards (1812-1886)

'She seems too high, too near, too great to grieve about...' Octavia Hill, co-founder of the National Trust, in a letter to Sydney Cockerell, 1877.

'Not for the bright face we shall see no more,
Not for the sweet voice we no more shall hear;
Not for the heart with kindness brimming o'er,
Large charity, and sympathy sincere.

These are not things that ask a public pen
To blazon its memorial o'er her name;
But, that in public work she wrought with men,
And faced their frowns, and over-lived their blame.

Yet never swerved a hair's breadth from the line
Of woman's softness, gentleness and grace;
But brought from these an influence to refine
Rough tasks and squalid, and there leave its trace.'

Extract from a poem 'In Memoriam' which was published in Punch in 1877.

‘Mrs. Nassau Senior’ - Jane Elizabeth ('Jeanie') Senior (1828-1877) painted by George Frederick Watts in 1857-8 when Jeanie was 30 (National Trust, Wightwick Manor, Wolverhampton). 'The Rescue' (1855) by John Everett Millais, National Gallery of Victoria. Jane Senior was the model for the mother; her son, Walter, aged 5 at the time, was the model for the little boy.

With regard to 'The Rescue' John Ruskin wrote: 'It is the only great picture exhibited this year; but this is very great. The immortal element is in it to the full. It is easily understood, and the public very generally understand it.' 'The Life and Letters of Sir John Everett Millais, President of the Royal Society’, John Guille Millais (his son), New York, 1899, p. 247-259, states: 'The following interesting note on “The Rescue” is taken from the Table Talk of Shirley, as quoted in Good Words of October, 1894: — "I knew Thomas Spencer Baynes intimately for nearly forty years. For ten years thereafter Baynes was my constant correspondent. From London he wrote to me as follows on May 25th, 1855: — 'I went in for half an hour to the Royal Academy yesterday, but as I was almost too tired to stand, and did not stay any time, I shall say nothing about it, only this, that the face and form of that woman on the stairs of the burning house [“The Rescue”] are, if not, as I am disposed to think, beyond all, quite equal to the best that Millais has ever done, not forgetting the look of unutterable love and life's deep yearning in “The Huguenot." And those children! Ah me! I can hardly bear to think of it; yet the agony is too near, too intense, too awful, for present rejoicing even at the deliverance. And that smile on the young mother's face has struggled up from such depths of speechless pain, and ex- presses such a sudden ecstasy of utter gratitude and over- mastering joy, that it quite unmans me to look at it. It is the most intense and pathetic utterance of poor human love I have ever met'“ and 'The latest note on the picture appeared in the Daily News of January 1st, 1898, in which it is said: — “'The Rescue' has a vigour and a courage that rivets attention. The immortal element (as Ruskin said at the time) is in it to the full. It was studied from the very life. Millais and a trusty friend of those early days hurried off one night to where a great fire was raging, plunged into the thick of the scene, and saw the effects which his memory could retain and his hand record. What a grappling it is with a difficulty which no other painter had so treated before. It is a situation which is dramatic; the rest is Nature. In the pose of the mother, as she reaches out those long arms of hers, straight and rigid and parallel, there is an intensity of expression that recalls his Pre- Raphaelite days. The figure of the child escaping towards her from the fireman's grasp shows what mastery of his art he had gained in the interval.” and 'Millais himself knew this to be his best work.'

The following is quoted from 'From the Porch' (p. 257 et seq) by Annie Thackeray, Lady Ritchie:

‘Mrs. Senior's name will always be associated with that of MABYS, of which she was indeed the founder, feeling as she did the want of some such help for girls coming out of workhouse schools and asylums, friendless and homeless, leaving the shelter and limitations in which they had been brought up for the world, where rules are not, nor safeguards, and the results were often disastrous, as they still are at times.

The old friends looked at each other with a common feeling of pleasure in that one woman's achievements, and in the charm of a personality still present after a quarter of a century. What follows is but a record of an evening's talk. We could almost believe now and again as we look at pictures which we have known always that mysterious things have happened to them since we saw them first - that new expressions have come into them. Was Turner's "Evening Star", for instance, as brightly scintillating as now when the painter first moved away from his canvas, or has the silver ocean, travelling out of space, come into the picture since it was first painted? It is not so with some lives we have loved and admired. The light seems to come into them.

Many of us may have this impression looking at Watts's fine portrait of Mrs. Nassau Senior, so familiar to the two interlocutors quoted above. It was once a beautiful picture and a most charming likeness, but now it seems something more. The painter had the spirit of divination, and it was as if he foresaw and remembered, too, while he stood painting at his easel. In this particular picture he has not only given us an actual portrait, but he has painted an abiding presence, the history of a life. The lady kneels to reach the flowers; her absorbed and careful looks are fixed upon the lilies which she is watering; one fair hand rests upon the marble table, the other with rosy-tipped fingers holds up the glass bowl brimming with water. Her violet dress - how well it always became her - hangs in straight folds from her waist; her beautiful flood of yellow hair flows in ripples. Everything in the painting is warm in tone; it is all simple, yet gorgeous; so is the ancient Indian shawl of orange and blue and scarlet, so is the big chair which is covered with Turkey twill; the green walls are only papered with ordinary hangings; but the various colours vibrate round the sweet head, which is bending with exquisite concern and intentness, and which is the soul of it all. A tray of hothouse flowers stands waiting on the floor. There are sprays of azalea and crown-imperials, and geraniums and maiden-hair ferns; but the lady has left them to water the growing lilies, and the feeling of peaceful ministry and the warmth of generous existence, all are somehow told in the picture, as it was in the life itself, which ended so long ago, which is so beneficent still.

Watts himself has written of this picture, of the intention he had when he created it, making her, as he says, "water a flowering root with so much solicitude"; and he goes on to dwell upon "the aspirations and affections which are sometimes with difficulty kept alive in the crush of artificial society. I love", he writes in a letter to her, "to think of you cultivating these rare roots. . . . No, not rare; by God's dear grace not rare; In many a lonely homestead blooming strong."

As I quote from Watts's letter I cannot help also remembering a saying of Ruskin, in which he, too, dwells on a woman's vocation. " A true lady," Ruskin says, "should be a princess, a washerwoman - yes, a washerwoman, to wash with water, to cleanse, to purify wherever she goes, to set disordered things in orderly array, ... This is a woman's mission."

Some of us may still remember Elm House*, where the Seniors lived at Wandsworth, and the long, low drawing-room, with its big bow-window opening to a garden full of gay parterres, where lawns ran to the distant boundary, while beyond again lay a far-away horizon. It was not the sea that one saw spreading before one's eyes, but the vast plateau of London, with its drifting vapours and its ripple of housetops flowing to meet the sky-line. The room itself was pleasant, sunny, and well-worn. There were old rugs spread on the stained floors (they were not as yet in fashion as they are now); many pictures were hanging on the walls; a varied gallery, good and indifferent; among the good were one or two of Watts's finest portraits, and I can also remember a Madonna's head with a heavy blue veil, and in juxtaposition a Pompeian sort of ballet girl, almost springing from the frame; and then, besides the pictures, there was a sense of music in the air, and of flowers, and of more flowers. The long piano was piled with music-books. Mrs. Nassau Senior, the mistress of the house, used to play her own chords and accompany herself as she poured out her full heart in strains beautiful and measured rather than profuse.

Garcia had been Mrs. Senior's singing master, and he would sometimes be present among the rest. I heard him speaking of her with affectionate admiration when he was a hundred years old, in his honourable age. How clear was her voice, how it rang and vibrated! For those who loved to listen to it, her "Vado ben spesso " rings on still. The true notes flowed; she did not seem to make any effort. She would cease singing to make some old friend welcome, and take to her music again as a matter of course. There was no solemnity in her performance, and yet I have heard Mrs. Sartoris say that it was because of the unremitting work of years, and because of Mrs. Senior's devotion to her art with absolute and conscientious determination, that she could use her voice as she did with tender and brilliant ease. It was a good sword indeed to defend the right. I heard a pretty story of a room full of Whitechapel boys and girls in revolt, and suddenly, when the clamour was at its height, she stood up quietly and began to sing, and the storm stopped and the room became silent and attentive. Sir Theodore Martin told me that he had only met Mrs. Senior once, one day when she was singing an Irish ballad to George Eliot at North Bank, "Far from the land where her young hero sleeps," which was written of Emmet. Sir Theodore said that forty years after he "could hear the notes still quite plainly." Some voices have this peculiar quality of vibrating on and on.

Stately and charming people used to assemble at Elm House. It is an old saying that people of a certain stamp attract each other. It was a really remarkable assemblage of accomplished and beautiful women who were in the habit of coming there, that home so bare, so simple, and yet so luxurious. It was like a foreign colony. The old roof held father, mother, son, the two widowed grandmothers - each in her own rooms, with her own attendant and the consequent vibrations. There was a younger brother also, with his flock of motherless children. The servants were like friends, not servants.

There is a letter with a date to it, February 1874, written by Mrs. Senior from a little cottage in the Isle of Wight which Mrs. Cameron had lately altered and devised, and which has belonged to the writer at intervals for years. That one winter Mrs. Senior went there to stay in it. Her son has let me see the letter, which begins with a motherly blessing, then continues:

"My dear, this is the Porch, the gate of Heaven. There is a sense of repose that I think one must feel just after death before beginning the new life. It is inconceivable how I enjoy it. I do nothing for hours together. The sitting-room opens into a tiny conservatory, and through the open window one hears the enchanted moan of the sea and the song of the birds. We are a long way from the sea, but I hear it; I wake at six and hear the earliest pipe of half-awakened birds, and I go to sleep with the sea in my ears and a lovely star looking in at my window.... We are to lunch at the Prinseps' to-morrow, as I want to see Watts. He is going to London to paint portraits. His house is perfectly charming. I am dying to build a house. It has rained all this morning, and we could not go to church; now it seems clearing, and the sun thinks of shining ... a constant thanks-giving and prayer goes up from my heart as I rest and am thankful."

What a grace is rest to those who work without ceasing!’

*Elm House, Lavender Hill, was demolished to make way for Battersea Town Hall, now the Battersea Arts Centre.

The view from Lavender Hill in 1848, looking north across Battersea Fields towards the River Thames. The Royal Hospital, Chelsea is just to the right of the prominent group of tress about one quarter of the picture in from the left. Westminster Abbey can be seen to the right of the Battersea Pumping Station. Thirty years later this landscape was mostly built up. In those days it was a rural area of market gardens (famed for asparagus) with a few villas.

An 1885 map showing Elm House in relation to Lavender Hill, Clapham Junction and Eland Road. The Battersea Town Hall, now the Battersea Arts Centre, was built on the site in 1893.

Jeanie Deans, the heroine of Sir Walter Scott's finest and most popular novel, 'The Heart of Mid-Lothian' (1818). Jane Elizabeth Hughes (1828-1877) was nicknamed 'Jeanie' after Jeanie Deans and the heroic perseverance of the heroine in a moral cause was undoubtedly a prime motivating factor in her life. Jane's grandmother, Mary Anne Watts (1770-1853), was a close friend of Sir Walter Scott and was the author of 'Letters and Recollections of Sir Walter Scott' (Ed. Horace G. Hutchinson, London, Smith Elder, 1904). My mother's father, Walter Nassau Senior (1850-1933) was also named after Sir Walter Scott, as was Jane's brother Walter Scott Hughes (1826-1846). Interestingly, Jeanie Deans was pursued by a prospective lover called the Laird of Dumbiedikes. At one point their conversation goes as follows:

"But, Laird," said Jeanie, who felt the necessity of being explicit with so extraordinary a lover, "I like another man better than you, and I canna marry ye."

"Another man better than me, Jeanie!" said Dumbiedikes; "how is that possible? It's no possible, woman - ye hae ken'd me sae lang."

"Ay but, Laird," said Jeanie, with persevering simplicity, "I hae ken'd him langer."

"Langer! It's no possible!" exclaimed the poor Laird. "It canna be; ye were born on the land. O Jeanie woman, ye haena lookit - ye haena seen the half o' the gear." He drew out another drawer - "A' gowd, Jeanie, and there's bands for siller lent - And the rental book, Jeanie - clear three hunder sterling - deil a wadset, heritable band, or burden - Ye haena lookit at them, woman - And then my mother's wardrobe, and my grandmother's forby - silk gowns wad stand on their ends, their pearline-lace as fine as spiders' webs, and rings and ear-rings to the boot of a' that - they are a' in the chamber of deas - Oh, Jeanie, gang up the stair and look at them!"

But Jeanie held fast her integrity, though beset with temptations, which perhaps the Laird of Dumbiedikes did not greatly err in supposing were those most affecting to her sex.

"It canna be, Laird - I have said it - and I canna break my word till him, if ye wad gie me the haill barony of Dalkeith, and Lugton into the bargain."

Interestingly, I ended up owning part of the old Barony (Regality) of Dalkeith; the Barony (and Regality) of Mordington. An intruiging twist in the tale.


Arms

Arms (from Burke's 'General Armory' under 'Hughes of Donnington Priory'): Quarterly, 1st and 4th, sable a fess cotised between three lions' heads erased argent (HUGHES ex WOOD); 2nd, azure three arrows points downwards or, on a chief of the second three Moors' heads couped sidefaced sable (WATTS); 3rd, argent, a chevron ermines between three unicorns' heads capped sable (HEAD).
Crest: On a wreath of the colours, a lion's head proper, crowned or.
Motto: 'Y Gwir Yn Erbyn Y Byd' ('The truth against the world'), supposed to have been the war-cry of Boudica.

Author's note:

1st and 4th quarters: These arms are remarkably similar to the arms of Wood of Essex given in Burke's 'General Armory' as 'Argent, a fesse gules within two barrulets azure between three lions' heads erased sable', but have clearly been reversed. These arms seem to have been assumed by the children or later descendants of Mwyndeg Hughes (d 1712) and Elizabeth Wood, sister and co-heir of Thomas Wood of Hillingdon (see above). It was the practice in Wales to adopt the arms of heiresses. It is possible that the black and white colour scheme was derived from the arms commonly associated with the Hughes name in Wales (though the undifferenced arms apparently belong to Hughes of Gwerclas, claimants to the throne of Powys), namely 'Argent a lion rampant sable', being the arms of Owain Brogyntyn, son of Madog ap Maredudd (d 1160), Prince of Powys, ancestor of the Hughes of Pant Gwyn in the female line, as described above.

The arms of Wood of Essex per Burke's 'General Armory'. The arms of Hughes.

2nd quarter: This shows the arms of Watts of Cotlington (as per the Visitation of Somerset, 1623) or Watts of Hanslope Park, Bucks, (Burke's 'General Armory'). Presumably Mary Anne Watts (1770-1853), mother of John Hughes (1790-1857), was descended from one of these families.

The arms of Watts.

3rd quarter: This shows the arms of Head (see Burke's 'General Armory' under 'Head (co. Berks and London)'). As explained in Burke's 'Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland', 1847 (Vol. I, p. 612), Mrs. Watts, the maternal grandmother of Mary Anne Watts (1770-1853), was the heiress of Richard Head (of Newbury, Berks, it appears).

The arms of Head.

Hughes (ex Wood) quartered with Watts and Head.

The crest is not that either of Wood (none given in Burke's 'General Armory'), Watts (a greyhound) or Head (a unicorn's head) and was presumably assumed. It might be based on Hughes of Gwerclas which consists of a demi-lion issuing out of a crown or (again the Hughes lion theme).

On the basis of the male-line descent from Madoc Dhu (d before 22 Apr 1301), Lord of Copa'r Goleuni (Gop Hill, Trelawnyd), as described above, the Hughes family should use his arms, namely, paly of six, argent and sable, as illustrated, with suitable differences, quartered with the arms of Wood, Watts and Head as appropriate. But the arms of Madoc Dhu are so well-known and of such an obvious heraldic status that they should not, in the author's opinion, be quartered with any other arms, although in Wales it was the practice to quarter the arms of any famous house (particularly princely houses) from which an armiger could trace descent; this was often done even where there was no descent from an heraldic heiress of that house, which meant that there was, under English heraldic practice, no right to bear the arms (Hughes of Gwerclas is a good example of this). So, in Wales, quartering the arms of a Welsh prince meant 'I am descended from x prince', not 'I am descended from an heraldic heiress of x prince'.

Arms of Madoc Dhu

A suggestion for the arms of Hughes.


'The Descent of Hughes'

Index